By John LaForge
The U.S. Army School of the Americas in Ft. Benning, Georgia is a notorious training operation for Latin American officers and soldiers. Itâ€™s associated with some of the worst dictatorships and human rights violators in the hemisphere. Over the past 20 years, the grassroots School of Americas Watch (SOA Watch) has grown into one of the most dynamic, multi-generational, cross-continental movements against militarism in the Americas (SOAW.org/November).
This weekend, Nov. 22-24, will see thousands gather for a massive rally at Ft. Benning in the ongoing campaign to shut down the school. Vans from colleges and universities will make the trek with students whoâ€™ve studied the grim history of U.S.-sponsored military coups and U.S.-friendly dictators, many of whom got their inspiration and training at the SOA (now renamed Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation or WHINSEC).
A History of Infamous Graduates
Among the more infamous SOA graduates are Gen. Jose Rios Montt, who was convicted May 10th of committing genocide between March 1982 and August 1983 during his Guatemalan military dictatorship; death squad leader Otto Perez Molina who, under Rios Montt, directed massacres of Mayan people, and who recently maneuvered Guatemalaâ€™s high court to reverse Rios Monttâ€™s conviction; Gen. Manual Noreiga of Panama, who moved from dictatorship via SOA to the BOP (Federal Bureau of Prisons that is) on drug charges; Roberto Dâ€™Abuisson, leader of El Salvadorâ€™s death squads in the 1980s; and Gen. Hugo Banzar Suarez of Bolivia who seized power in 1971 and who jailed, disappeared and assassinated suspected political opponents for eight years. SOA graduates led military coups in Venezuela in 2002 and the 2009 coup in Honduras.
For more background, â€œSomos Una Americaâ€ â€” a new documentary that focuses on the campaign against the Pentagon mindset that promotes U.S. domination and â€˜military solutionsâ€™ in the Western Hemisphere â€” is available online for free (visit: soaw.org/somos).
This past April, the SOA Watch campaign won a long-sought court victory over the U.S. governmentâ€™s refusal to release the names of the trainers at the SOA/WHINSEC. Federal Judge Phyllis J. Hamilton in Calif. ruled that the Pentagon has no grounds for refusing to release these names. President Obama has OKâ€™d the Justice Departmentâ€™s appeal of this ruling, protecting the Pentagonâ€™s effort to keep the information secret. As SOA Watch points out, this is because instructors there have coached â€œtorturers, death squads and military dictators throughout the Americas.â€ The presidentâ€™s decision to appeal puts the lie to his claim that his administration would be the most transparent in history. And you thought after his persecution of whistle blowers Julian Assange, Pfc. Manning and Edward Snowden that Obama could not get more cynical!
Teaching Torture the World Over
The SOA burst into the news in 1996, when the Pentagon released copies of its torture training manuals. The Sept. 21, 1996 Washington Post, in â€œU.S. Instructed Latins on Executions, Torture; Manuals Used 1982-91, Pentagon Revealsâ€ by Dana Priest, notes that the manuals promote the use of â€œfear, payment of bounties for enemy dead, beatings, false imprisonment, executions and the use of truth serum.â€ By 1996, 60,000 military and police officers had been through SOA training.
The torture manuals were distributed to thousands of military officers from eleven South and Central American countries, although the actions advocated in them violated U.S. Army law at the time. The Pentagon ordered the manuals destroyed, but only a few thousand were ever recovered. They have doubtlessly been reproduced and employed by militaries andÂ counterinsurgency forces the world over. U.S. military occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan appear to be direct beneficiaries, considering the torture regimes conducted at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq (2004) and at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Afghanistan has become a torture regime too â€” first under U.S. forces and now by their Afghan trainees (See â€œU.S. Practiced Torture After 9/11, Nonpartisan Review Concludes,â€ NY Times, Apr. 16, 2013, and â€œGovernment Panel in Afghanistan Confirms Widespread Torture of Detainees,â€ Jan. 21, 2013).
Demands to abolish the SOA/WHINSEC now come from across the political spectrum. From the point of view of the victims, more than 300 human rights defenders have employed nonviolent direct action at the base, and as a result have collectively spent over 100 years in prison and served additional years probation. (Disclaimer: I did 6 months in the Duluth prison camp for trespassing at SOA back in 2006. My cellie R.J., who was doing eight years, put me straight when he announced, â€œI see him doing his exercises, his yoga. Heâ€™s just here for an oil change.â€) From officialdom, the Latin American Military Training Review Act of 2013, H.R. 2989, would suspend operations at the school. It also mandates an investigation into SOAâ€™s connection with abuses of human rights. It has 40 co-sponsors but needs more.
If youâ€™re not heading down to the Georgia for the rally, at least push your Congressional Reps to join the shutdown effort.Î¦
John LaForge is a Co-director of Nukewatch, a nuclear watchdog and environmental justice group in Wisconsin, edits its quarterly newsletter, and writes for PeaceVoice.