The Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin sent a mine developer back to the drawing board after a legal battle over sacred sites and water contamination.
By Rebecca Bowe
Menominee youth gather at the mouth of the Menominee River with Tribal Chairman Douglas Cox and high school teacher Dawn Wilber. Kiliii Yuyan for Earthjustice
Itâ€™s no accident that the river that divides the places known today as Wisconsin and Michigan bears the same name as the Menominee Tribe. The Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin lived along the Menominee River for thousands of years, and evidence of their ancestral past â€” including sacred sites, such as dance rings and burial mounds â€” still line its banks.
â€œPeople who arenâ€™t Menominee maybe canâ€™t understand that our relationship with that river goes back way before 1492,â€ explains Guy Reiter, executive director of a grassroots organization focused on community wellness for Menominee people. â€œWe know its secrets, and it knows our secrets. I need it in my life, and it needs us.â€
Guy Reiter, whose Menominee name is Anahkwet, is executive director of Menikanaehkem, a grassroots organization based on the Menominee Reservation. Kiliii Yuyan for Earthjustice
The Back Forty mine, a massive proposed mine and ore-processing center, posed an existential threat to the Menominee Tribeâ€™s cultural landscape along the banks of their namesake river. Canadian mining company Aquila Resources sought to dig an 80-acre open pit immediately adjacent to the river in Michiganâ€™s rural Upper Peninsula to extract copper, zinc, gold, and silver. The pit would have been deeper than the Statue of Liberty is tall, merely 50 yards away from the river.
Earthjustice, representing the Tribe, filed suit to challenge the company’s permits. In January 2021, a Michigan judge denied the Back Forty project a wetlands permit, ruling that the mine â€œis not in the public interestâ€ and will damage nearby cultural and historic resources. More recently, another court decision called the company’s mining permits into question. Seeing the writing on the wall, Aquila Resources announced in May that it will surrender its mining permits and drop its efforts to reinstate its wetland permit. Still, the company has announced plans to submit yet another proposal to revive the ill-conceived project.â€¯
â€œThis is a win for the Menominee River, the people of Wisconsin and Michigan, and Menominee Tribe, and we will not stop fighting until these waters, lands, and sacred sites are protected for good,â€ says Joan Delabreau, chairwoman of the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin.
A series of treaties over hundreds of years greatly reduced Menominee Tribal lands, and the present-day Menominee Reservation lies roughly 60 miles from the mouth of the Menominee River. After a long history of being pushed off their lands, protection of the lasting cultural landmarks is paramount to the Menominee Tribe.
An aerial look at the Menominee River as it is today, showing boundaries of the Back Forty Mine site and a portion of mine operations, based on a 2018 permit. The mine would irreversibly transform the landscape. Lisa Pradhan / Earthjustice
Along the banks of the Menominee River, â€œThereâ€™s some ceremonial sites that people still use today,â€ says Menominee Tribal Chairman Douglas Cox.
In court testimony, Chairman Cox noted, â€œIf I was one to practice ceremonial and spiritual ways of the Menominee at a site like that (if I could even get on the site anymore) â€” and there was a 90-foot tailing pile at that site â€” I would not use that site any longer, nor would I go back. Those kinds of impacts are real. They will be realized. And it relates all the way down to the place of our origin.â€
Douglas Cox is Chairman of the Menominee Tribe. Kiliii Yuyan for Earthjustice
The clean waters of the Menominee River have long been a draw for family outings, rafting, boating, and sport fishing. Yet in 2018, the conservation group American Rivers listed the Menominee as one of the nationâ€™s most endangered waterways, due to the risk of acid mine drainage from the Back Forty project.
Acid mine drainage is caused when sulfide ores, the rocks that bear minerals such as gold, nickel, zinc, and copper, react to form acids because they have been exposed to air and water in the process of mining. It can manifest as a nasty contaminated runoff leaching from mine sites, filled with pollutants including heavy metals that are toxic to fish, vegetation, and water quality.
â€œItâ€™s likely going to affect Green Bay and Lake Michigan and Great Lakes,â€ Chairman Cox notes. â€œThis is going to be an impact to our region.â€ The Menominee River flows into Green Bay, a part of Lake Michigan, and connects to a watershed that ultimately feeds drinking water supplies.
Acid mine damage polluted this stream. Wendy Van / Getty Images
On a sunny spring afternoon in 2019, six high school students from the Menominee Indian School District came to see the sacred sites at the riverâ€™s edge. Dave Grignon, the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer, led the group to the mouth of the river, located in present-day Marinette, Wisconsin.
â€œOur history took place on the Menominee River,â€ Grignon explained to the teens. â€œIt was said that the great Ancestral Bear came out of the mouth of the Menominee River.â€ The Ancestral Bear emerged from the water and was transformed into a human, marking the first Menominee. As the bear traveled up river, it met others such as wolf and crane, the beginnings of the five clans that still form the Menominee Tribeâ€™s social order.
Grignon added, â€œOne of the first things the Menominees did was fish sturgeon on the river.â€ Lake sturgeon, which migrate up the Menominee River, continue to hold great cultural significance to the Tribe. Historic gatherings took place in celebration of the fish, marking the ends of long, bitter winters.
Historic Preservation Officer David Grignon at the Menominee Museum. Sturgeon is depicted in his traditional beadwork. Kiliii Yuyan for Earthjustice
As Grignon explained to the youth, wild rice is another food that is considered exceptionally important to Menominee, recognized as among the first gifts the Creator bestowed to them. The Tribe recently re-established wild rice at the mouth of the river to commemorate their historic ties there. Yet sulfates, which would be produced as part of the mining project, are especially harmful to wild rice.
A pair of eagles circled overhead as the high-school students arrived at their second stop on the sacred-sites tour, near the boundary of the proposed Back Forty mine. The young people laughed and joked as they walked through the woods. Sun peeked out from the clouds overhead, and light danced across the high rushing water. Sprigs of sedge, trillium, and other delicate flowering plants pushed up through a blanket of leaves.
Grignon and archeologist David Overstreet led the group to a conical mound that rose up from the forest floor, where Grignon led a short prayer and made an offering of tobacco. Mounds can be found scattered through the woods along a three-mile stretch lining both sides of the river, including within the proposed boundaries of the mine. While some were used for burial, Overstreet said, others may have been used for ceremonial purposes relating to fertility or other aspects of life or worship.
Teenagers at an ancient mound near the banks of the Menominee River. Kiliii Yuyan for Earthjustice
â€œSeeing the burial mounds made me feel emotional, but happy at the same time, seeing where my relatives were,â€ said Aaliyah Webster, a 14-year-old high school student. â€œJust being here made me feel really proud to be who I am, and where I come from. I just want to help stop the mine, so we can keep these sites and future generations can come up here and learn the same things I did.â€
Near the mound was a series of furrows still visible on the forest floor that had once been a raised garden bed â€” radiocarbon dating suggests crops were grown there as early as 1450. In addition to being closely tied to the Tribeâ€™s ancestral past, these agricultural sites are treasured by historians and archaeologists who view them as puzzle pieces that can aid in a richer understanding of ancient culturesâ€™ lifeways. https://player.vimeo.com/video/341672901 Aaliyah Webster, a 14-year-old high school student in the Menominee Indian School District, joined classmates on a sacred-site tour near the proposed Back Forty mine site. Photos by Kiliii Yuyan / Audio by Rebecca Bowe
â€œThese are pretty sophisticated agricultural systems,â€ Overstreet noted, explaining that he and other scholars were intrigued to discover that ancient Menominee people were growing maize so far north, well into an era known as the Little Ice Age. â€œThey are still trying to figure out how it is that they altered the soil conditions to make them incredibly fertile.â€
David Grignon and David Overstreet stand in a replica garden they created to learn more about ancient agricultural techniques, following archaeologistsâ€™ discovery of ancient raised garden beds in Menominee village sites. Kiliii Yuyan for Earthjustice
On their sacred site tour, the group of high school students also visited a dance ring, one of several in the area, which would have been used for ceremonial purposes by Menominee and other neighboring Tribes.
Historians and researchers have already identified some of the Menominee cultural sites near the Back Forty mine as eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places â€” the official list of historic buildings, districts, sites, structures, and objects worthy of preservation. Yet if the Back Forty mine is built, this opportunity for historic preservation could be lost, and the landscape will be altered beyond recognition. https://player.vimeo.com/video/341670598 High school teacher Dawn Wilber speaks about how youth are influenced by exposure to their ancestral landscape along the river. Photos by Kiliii Yuyan / Audio by Rebecca Bowe
This blog was originally published in June 2019. It has been updated to reflect the Tribe’s victory in May 2021.
Rebecca is the Communications Strategist for Earthjusticeâ€™s Northwest and Alaska regional offices. She is based in Headquarters in San Francisco. She spent 11 years as an investigative reporter, including a year producing radio and web pieces for KQED News. Rebecca is fond of drinking strong coffee, hiking through wild places in California, and exploring the many fascinating worlds that make up life and culture in the Bay Area.
This article was published on May 14 at Earthjustice.